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2X9-121 SR RTUH OR 4*330 »E81
United States Patent m
Cruickshank et al.
 LASER BONDING TECHNIQUE AND ARTICLE FORMED THEREBY
 Inventors: David G. Cruickshank, Hopewell Township, Mercer County; Robert Webb, Ewing Township, Mercer County, both of N.J.
 Assignee: Western Electric Company, Inc., New York, N.Y.
 Appl. No.: 174,052
 Filed: Jul. 31, 1980
 Int. C1.3 B23K 27/00
 U.S. Q. 219/121 LD; 219/121 ED
 Field of Search 219/121 LC, 121 LD,
219/121 L, 121 LM, 121 EC, 121 ED, 93, 56.1, 56.21, 56.22, 58; 338/329
 References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
974,821 11/1910 Lachman 219/58
2,019,457 10/1935 Lodge 338/329 X
3,060,356 10/1962 Beyer 361/308
[ii] 4,320,281  Mar. 16, 1982
3,267,249 8/1966 Veth 219/85 R
3,437,736 4/1969 Asher et al 338/329
3,463,898 8/1969 Takaoka et al 219/121 LC
3,610,874 10/1971 Gagliano 219/121 LD
3,733,685 5/1973 Kauppila 228/110
4,136,298 1/1979 Hansler 219/121 LC X
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
52-38447 3/1977 Japan 219/121 LD
Primary Examiner—C. L. Albritton
Attorney, Agent, or Firm—D. J. Kirk
Electrically conductive leads (12) are bonded to pretinned ends (11) of a thin film, rolled capacitor (10). A dimple (20) is formed in the leads (12) resulting in an indentation (21) therein and a protrusion (22) on the opposite surface thereof. The protrusion (22) is placed in contact with the end (11) and a pulsed laser beam directed into the indentation (21) to heat the lead (12) in the vicinity of the protrusion (22) to reflow a portion of the pre-tinned ends (11) to form a bond therebetween.
6 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures
U.S, Patent Mar. 16, 1982 Sheet 1 of 2 4,320,281
U.S. Patent Mar. 16, 1982 Sheet 2 of 2 4,320,281
LASER BONDING TECHNIQUE AND ARTICLE
TECHNICAL FIELD 5
The instant invention is directed to forming bonds between articles. In particular, such bonds are formed using reflow bonding techniques.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 10
Heretofore it has been well known to bond electrically conductive leads to the ends of rolled metallized film capacitors or the like. The conductive leads and/or the metallized film capacitor ends are pre-tinned and )5 brought into intimate contact. Heat is then applied to the leads by a contact device such as a heated ram, soldering iron or the like to reflow the pre-tinned material to effect a bond.
Such a technique has proved most effective in the 2Q past. However, with the ever increasing miniaturization of such capacitors, heat dissipation presents problems. Heat transferred, by a soldering iron or other relatively massive members, to such a miniature capacitor, as well as the force exerted thereon, can destroy or severely 25 damage the capacitor.
One proposed solution to the bonding of leads to miniaturized capacitors is the use of a laser. The laser appears particularly attractive since it inherently provides a non-contacting method of bonding wherein a 30 carefully controlled amount of heat is applied to the joint interface. Furthermore, such a laser technique may be fully automated and designed to operate at high production rates.
Unfortunately, most leads that are to be bonded to the 35 ends of the components are highly reflective of the laser light resulting in poor optical coupling efficiency. Additionally, when relatively planar articles are brought together, high spots on one or more of the articles result in poor physical contact which can create voids in the 40 reflowed solder.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The instant method overcomes the foregoing problem by forming an indentation in one surface of a first 45 article resulting in a protrusion in the opposite surface thereof. The protrusion is placed against a second article with reflowable bonding material therebetween. A beam of high energy radiation is directed into the indented portion to heat said portion to reflow the reflow- 50 able bonding material to bond the first article to the second article.
Advantageously, the protrusion increases the active surface area at the bond interface.
Further, the indentation enhances the optical cou- 55 pling efficiency by trapping an additional portion of the incident radiant energy therein.
Furthermore, the protrusion tends to localize and ^ direct heat flow to the area to be bonded.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS 60
'» FIG. 1 is an isometric view of a miniature capacitor;
FIG. 2 is a side view of the miniature capacitor with conductive leads contacting the end portions thereof;
FIG- 3 is a partial cross-sectional view depicting the 65 use of a laser to bond; and
FIG. 4 is a partial cross-sectional view of the conductive lead bonded to the capacitor.
In an exemplary embodiment the instant invention is implemented to bond an electrically conductive lead to the end of a miniature capacitor. Such a disclosure is for purposes of exposition and not for limitation for the instant concepts can be applied to bonding of various leads or lead-like members to various articles such as other electronic components, leads, land areas or the like.
FIG. 1 is an isometric view of a rolled metallized film capacitor 10 having electrically conductive end portions 11—11. A lead 12 having a paddle shaped section 13 with a narrow lead 14 extending therefrom is solder bonded to each end portion 11.
Heretofore, the end portions 11—11 and/or the paddle 13 were pre-tinned with a solder (e.g., 60% tin and 40% lead) and placed in intimate contact. A heated ram, soldering iron or the like was brought into contact with the paddle 13 to transfer heat thereto and cause the solder to reflow to form a bond. Such a technique requires substantial heat and contact with a relatively massive heating tool.
Recent developments have led to the manufacture of zinc metallized polyester film miniature capacitors 10 having a substantially rectangular shape of about 0.075X0.125X0.175 inch. Capacitors 10 of such small size have been severely damaged due to the heat and/or the pressure exerted by the relatively massive electrodes used to apply the heat thereto.
In order to selectively apply heat to portions of the paddle 13 of the lead 12 in a non-contact fashion a beam of high energy radiation such as a laser beam has been used. However, it was quickly discovered that the conductive lead materials (e.g., phosphor bronze, copper, or the like) reflected a substantial portion of the laser light, requiring that the laser energy be increased. Additionally, the two relatively planar surfaces meeting at the bond interface resulted in poor contact due to high spots thereon which created voids in the reflowed solder material.
In order to overcome these problems, in accordance with the present invention, a hemispherical dimple 20 is formed in the paddle 13 of the lead 12 resulting in an indentation 21 on one side and a protrusion 22 on the opposite side of the lead as can be seen in FIGS. 2 and 3. FIG. 3 is an enlarged (not to scale) view of the dimple 20 with the protrusion 22 held in intimate contact with the pre-tinned end portion 11. A radiant energy beam 26 from a laser 27 is directed into the indentation 21 to provide heat thereto to reflow the pre-tinned material on the end portion 11 to bond the lead 12 thereto.
As the solder on the end 11 reflows (FIG. 4) it moves up the protrusion 22 contacting a substantial portion of the surface thereof. Additionally, by urging the lead 12 towards the end 11 as the solder reflows the protrusion 22 becomes further embedded in the molten solder resulting in greater bonding area and a highly reliable bond.
In addition, the hemispherical dimple 20 increases the active surface area at the bond interface as compared to a planar lead. The dimple 20 also has been found to enhance the optical coupling efficiency by trapping an additional portion of the incident focused laser beam 26 within the indentation 21.
FIG. 2 also shows a dimple 20 in the narrow lead 14 which may be connected to land areas 31 in the same manner the paddle 13 of the lead 12 was connected to