BUILDING CONSTRUCTION WITH INTERSECTING WALLS James M. Denny, Norcross, Ga., and Sven A. Carlsson, Detroit, Mich., assignors to Security Aluminum Company, Detroit, Mich., a corporation of Michigan Filed Feb. 15, 1963, Ser. No. 258,813 Int. CI. E04b 2/00 U.S. CI. 52—275 2 Claims
This invention relates broadly to new and useful improvements in building constructions and more particularly to a building having walls made from unique preformed and interlocking metal parts.
An important object of the invention is to provide a building wall construction in which the wall components can be made relatively inexpensively by conventional stamping and forming operations and wherein the components can be stacked compactly for shipment or transportation to the building site.
Another object of the invention is to provide a building construction of the above-mentioned character having a relatively small number of preformed metal parts that are adaptable to substantially all of the conditions normally encountered in building designs so as to minimize time and labor in construction.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a building construction of the above-mentioned chracter wherein the formed metal parts of the building wall can be easily and quickly assembled and interlocked on the site and wherein the wall thus formed has excellent heat insulating and sound deadening properties.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide a building construction of the above-mentioned character wherein the wall components can be modified and arranged in different ways to provide versatility of construction and ready adaptation to different building forms and designs.
A further object of the invention is to provide a building construction of the above-mentioned character wherein the formed metal parts of the building walls are uniquely combined and correlated to assure adequate strength using relatively thin gauge metal and securely interconnected to resist wind loads and other forces.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent during the course of the following description:
In the drawing, forming a part of this specification, and wherein like numerals are employed to designate like parts throughout the same:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a building utilizing the novel wall construction of this invention and particularly illustrating a door in the wall and the manner in which the roof loads are transferred through the wall to the foundation of the building;
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a wall construction similar to the one in FIG. 1 but showing a window opening and particularly illustrating the manner in which two walls are joined together at an angle;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged, fragmentary, horizontal sectional view taken on the line 3—3 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is an enlarged, fragmentary, transverse sectional view taken on the line 4—4 of FIG. 1; and
FIG. 5 is an enlarged, fragmentary, horizontal sectional view through the wall at a window opening and particularly illustrating a modified window frame and frame mounting construction.
FIGS. 1 and 2 show a building constructed according to the present invention having suitable walls 10 on a foundation 12 and supporting a suitable roof structure 14.
The wall 10 comprises spaced, parallel, inner and outer wall portions 16 and 18 connected by intermediate studs
20. Both of the wall portions 16 and 18 are formed from a plurality of skin panels 22 of sheet metal, plastic or the like. These panels 22 normally extend the full height of the wall and are arranged in edgewise butting relation 5 with the joints between the outer wall panels opposite corresponding joints between the inner wall panels. The studs 20 are disposed at the joints between the wall panels 22, and each stud comprises inner and outer cleats 24 and 26 connected by rigid webs 28. As shown, the Jq cleats 24 and 26 hold the panels 22 together and also close the joints between the panels to prevent passage of moisture through the wall at the joints.
The cleats 24 and 26 also normally extend the full height of the wall, and it is a particular feature of the 15 invention that the cleats are load-supporting members which act together with the skin panels 22 to transfer the roof load to the foundation 12. The manner in which the cleats 24 and 26 and the skin panels 22 cooperate and function jointly to share and uniformly distribute the 20 roof load and to sustain wind loads and other forces to which vertical external building walls normally are subjected permits the skin panels to be made relatively thin and indeed this also is true of the studs 20 so that material costs are kept sufficiently low to compete economically with 25 other forms of low cost building constructions while maintaining adequate strength and regidity of construction and utilizing the long life and other desirable physical characteristics of metal. This question of material costs is particularly cogent from a commercial point of view SO when the wall components are made of a metal such as aluminum, for example.
As suggested, it is contemplated that any suitable material such as plastic, galvanized iron or aluminum be used in the manufacture of the wall parts, and particularly 35 in the skin panels 22, but aluminum is the preferred material as its light weight and rust-free characteristics make it desirable in all climates and under all building conditions. Further, aluminum is attractive and can be painted any desired color prior to fabrication of the build40 ing by conventional anodizing or baking processes.
The space between the inner and outer wall portions 24 and 26 preferably is filled with a monolithic filler 30. Any suitable material such as plastic or concrete can be used for this purpose, but regardless of the material 45 used in the filler it preferably is foamed or expanded for maximum heat insulating effect. Conventional procedures and techniques for foaming can be used for this purpose and the filler preferably is poured and foamed in situ after the wall has been erected and before the roof 14 50 is constructed. Concrete is particularly suitable as a filler as it also provides a food fire barrier and has good sounddeadening properties. However, concrete having a lightweight aggregate is preferred in order to minimize weight and to prevent distortion of the wall panels and other 55 destructive effects from impact forces resulting when the concrete is poured into the wall. Expanded shale, clay or slate; expanded slag; cinders, pumice, perlite, and vermiculite are typical examples of suitable lightweight aggregate. In this connection it will be observed that the 60 webs 28 of the studs 20 are spaced apart so that the poured filler 30 extends as a monolithic mass through the entire wall of the building and completely surrounds the webs and contains most of the cleats 24 and 26. In practice, the filler 30 forms a hard durable core 05 which together with the skin and stud components provides an exceedingly strong rigid finished structure. In the drawings, the filler 30 is not shown in all parts of the walls 10 in order to illustrate certain structural features of the latter, but it will be understood that in practice 70 the filler preferably extends through and completely fills all of the walls. As suggested, the panels 22 preferably are relatively