Preferably the lid plate 17* sits on the lid 13 with an Preferably a further bypass 9*3 is provided in which an
upper-side centering member 17L in a corresponding lower- electrically or preferably manually operable valve V3 is
side recess. Furthermore, the lid 13 has a lower-side cen- arranged, which as a further safety valve serves for the
tering member 13a. in the present case a centering ring, purpose of reducing the pressure in the reaction chamber
which engages into the circumferential wall of the housing 5 after a treatment process, by opening the valve, thus
underpart 12 thus centering the lid 13 in its closed position. enabling the access to the reaction chamber, in the event that
In the region of the housing 11 two temperature sensors the preferably programm controlled valve VI should not
Tl, T2 are provided. The first temperature sensorTl is in the function, with which is also possible to reduce the pressure
base region of the housing underpart 12 and serves for af^r me treatment process.
determining actual values for the regulation of the heating 10 The bypasses 9*1. 9*2, 9b3 are arranged in parallel to one
power and thus also of the temperature in the reaction another. i.e. each bypass can function independently of the
chamber 2. others, which is ensured by the parallel connection.
The second temperature sensor T2 serves for determining In the control block 5 there is also arranged a pressure
the sheath temperature of the housing 11 and for the regu- sensor PI for detecting the pressure in the reaction chamber
lation of the cooling device IS, for the purpose of preventing 15 2, arranged in particular in the region of the connection line
an overheating of the material of the walls of the housing. 9. which faces the housing 11.
The connecting line 9 is connected with the upper region In the region away from the housing 11 the bypasses are
of the reaction chamber 2, whereby it penetrates the lid 13 rejoined to the common connection line branch 9b, the
preferably centrally in the present embodiment. A relatively connection line branch 9b discharging into a container or
thin nominal cross-section suffices for the connection line 9. chimney (not shown) in the further course of the discharge
Preferably this nominal cross-section is approx. 6 mm, direction (see arrow 29).
whereby the connecting line 9 can preferably be a flexible The material to be treated, in particular specimen material
line of plastics, in order to be able to move the lid 13 on 31, can be introduced loose or preferably in one or several
closing and opening. 25 receptacles 7 into the reaction chamber 2. In the present
With the exemplary embodiment in accordance with FIG. embodiment there are shown two receptacles 7 which are 2 the connection line 9 branches in a T-shaped fitting 26 °Pen on the upper side, are in particular of hollow cylindriwhich is fitted or screwed into the housing 11, from above, cal shape ^ nave a level receptacle base 7a, in which in here into the lid 13. from which a connection line branch 9a addition to the specimen material 31 an additional material extends to the loading device 4 and the other connection line 30 e I- a reaction promoting material, in particular a solid or branch 9b extends to the control block 5. In the first- liquid chemical 32 is further arranged. The horizontal crossmentioned connection line branch 9a there are arranged an sectional size, in this case the diameter of the like recepair- or gas pump 20 and a non-return valve 27 which opens tacles 7. is only a fraction of the cross-sectional size of the in a flow direction towards the reaction chamber 2 and closes reaction chamber 2, so that between the outer circumferenin the opposite direction. In the present embodiment the 35 tial walls of an individual receptacle 7 and the inner cirfeed-through channel 9c, which forms the common connec- cumferential walls of the reaction chamber 2, or between the tion line section—here in the lid 13. is lined with a sleeve 28, latter and several receptacles 7 and between the receptacles, preferably with an inner flange 28a, of temperature and tnere is a free sPace which is preferably filled with a corrosion-resistant material, preferably plastics. The fitting microwave absorbent, in particular liquid, indirectly effec26 and associated threaded rings 26a, 26b and the connec- 40 tive heating agent, in the present embodiment water 33. up tion line 9 are also of a temperature and corrosion-resistant t0 approximately the height of the filling level of the material, in particular of plastics. receptacles 7.
The connection line branch 9b has a first blocking or Preferably a further indirectly effective heating agent of
regulation valve V in the control block 5, the valve member microwave-absorbent material is provided, which in the
of which opens the branch 9b above a certain pressure or 45 present embodiment is a level heating plate 34, which rests
pressure range in the reaction chamber 2 with increasing on ^ Preferably level upper side of the housing base 17a*
pressure or closes it with decreasing pressure. The valve and on the level upper side 34a of which the receptacle(s) 7
body of this valve V can be acted upon through the force of ^in extensive physical contact and thus in large-area heat
a spring e.g. a plate spring 29 or a spiral spring into its conducting contact.
blocking position and can be opened through the pressure in so The function of the device 1 is as follows:
branch 9b. In parallel therewith in the control block 5 two or For the treatment, in particular the preparation of the
three bypasses are arranged, in which respective control material 31 this is introduced into the reaction chamber 2 as
valves are arranged. An electrically operable valve VI is described above and the housing 11 is closed. Thereafter the
associated with a first bypass 9bl and a preferably smaller treatment of the material 31 under excess pressure and heat
cross-sectional, which valve is electrically driven (open/ 55 can begin, whereby the excess pressure, the heat and the
close) or regulated in dependence of the pressure in the treatment can be controlled automatically or manually,
reaction chamber 2 in such a way that a certain pressure is For a treatment process the loading device 4 is firstly
not exceeded or a desired pressure value is maintained. A switched on, in order to generate an initial pressure in the
pressure-safety valve V2 is associated with a second bypass reaction chamber 2, in the present exemplary embodiment
9b2, which valve opens preferably abruptly above a higher, 60 an initial pressure of e.g. 80 to 100 bar, which can be
predetermined pressure in the reaction chamber 2. In the maintained through switching on the loading device 4 for a
present embodiment this valve V2 is a rupture disk, which certain time or through the pressure sensor PI or a further
ruptures when the above-mentioned safety pressure value is pressure sensor. The pressure is generated through introduc
exceeded and thus opens the bypass 9*2. The branch 9b is tion or pumping in of air or a gas. e.g. an inert gas such as
preferably dimensioned to be larger in cross-section than the 65 nitrogen. Thereafter the heating device 3 is switched on.
first bypass 9*1. The second bypass 9*2 is preferably whereby in the present case the material is heated by
dimensioned to be larger still than the branch 9b. microwaves directly from below (in as far as the material